Common Illness And Injury With The Best First Aid Treatment

First aid is the provision of immediate or first attention, treatment or care for an illness or injured person before taken to the hospital or before the arrival of the doctor. There are many minor injuries that can be taken care with provision of immediate medical attention.
Important notice before taking any first aid treatment is that remove victim from the cause or remove cause from the victim. We can also say that a person the gives first aid is called a first aider while the injured or sick person can is called the casualty or the patient.

Aims Or Objectives of First Aid
Safeguard somebody's life  
Avoid further injuries or pain
Promote recovery and provide comfor for the sick
Prepare the victim for prompt medical treatment
Assist the doctor on his arrival at the scene

Some Common Illness and Injury With The Best First Aid Treatment

1. Bruises 

This is a type of injury showing as an area of discolored skin on the body. These are caused by blows on the body. It could be a surface bruise or deep bruise. Sometimes, it affects the skeletal system.

First Aid Treatment
  • Know the extent of the injury and rob the affected parts to disperse the blood
  • Stop bleeding if any
  • Apply elastic bandage for support, refer casualty to the hospital 
  • Apply cold compress to prevent more blood rushing to the affected areas. 
2. Sprain
It is a twist at the joint that results in overstretching or total tearing of the ligaments or tendon. The result of such a wrench or twist of a joint.

Signs and Symptoms
  • Discoloration of the skin
  • Swelling and tenderness around the joint.
  • Muscle spasm may be present
First Aid Treatment
  • Apply pressure bandage with cold compress
  • Raise the affected parts 
  • Encourage the patient to move the affected parts
  • Apply tape support
  • Refer to the orthopaedic hospital
3. Dislocation
This is the displacement of the articular surfaces of the bones at a joint. It is a disturbance from a proper, original, or usual place or state. It is caused when there is a displacement of one or more bones at a joint. Common sites of dislocation include waist, knee, elbow, shoulder, ankle, joints etc.

Signs and Sypmtoms
  • Sever pains 
  • Swelling and tenderness around the area

First Aid Treatment
  • Support he dislocated joint and place in the most comfortable position using bandages or slings
  • Compress and ice pack or cold over the affected joint
4. Fracture
This is the cracking, bending or breaking of the bone in the body, it could be partial or complete separation of the bones.

Types of Fracture
Simple Fracture (closed fracture)
This is a break that occur in the bone without open wound to the surface
Compound Fracture (open fracture)
This occur when the bone is broken with some of the pieces piercing the flesh.
Multiple Fracture
This is a situation where the bone is broken at several points

Signs and Symptoms
  • Severe and immediate pain around the region of fracture
  • Shock may occur in very severe cases
  • Parts of the broken bone may come out
  • Inability to move the affected bone
First Aid Treatment
  • Immobilize the affected parts completely be means of pads, pillows
  • Identify the type of fracture before beginning any form of first aid 
  • Where there is bleeding, control the bleeding to avoid excessive loss of blood
  • Apply sterilized dressing if there is open wound
  • If there are swellings, ice bags should be placed on the injured part
  • Refer immediately to the orthopedic hospital
5. Bleeding / Haemorrhage 
There are three main types of bleeding which are arterial, veinous and capillary bleeding
a. Arterial Bleeding: This is the type of bleeding that occur when the blood pours out with the rhythm of the heart beat. The blood is puer red and comes out in jets which correspond to the heart beat.
b. Veinous Bleeding: This is as a result of the rupture of the veins. The blood has pale colour because it lacks oxygen. The flow of the blood is steady
c. Capillary Bleeding: The blood oozes out and can be controlled easily.
To stop bleeding is important in order to save life and avoid tiredness and dizziness that characterize severe bleeding.

First Aid Treatment
  • Identify the type of haemorrhage
  • Place a sterile dressing on the wound and apply direct pressure with your hand
  • Raise the injured arm or leg above the level of the heart to control the bleeding
  • When the bleeding has stopped, apply a dressing and take the victim to the hospital
  • Do not give the victim anything to drink or eat before sending him to the hospital as this may delay his treatment
6. Burns/ Scalds
A burn is an injury caused by fire or any dry heat while a scald is caused by moist heat. Serious burns or scalds can cause shock.

First Aid Treatment
  • Immerse the affected part in cold water
  • Do not prick the blisters
  • Apply ointment and bandage the burns
  • Send to the hospital immediately

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