Preventing the Transmission of Infection in Health Care: Second Part

This is the second part in preventing the transmission of infection in Health Care. We have talk much about microorganisms as they grow rapidly and multiply a million-fold by binary fission. It is also listed in our first post the they undergo this possibly with adequate nutrition and due to their physical factors. The physical factors that constitute to their rapid growth and development include temperature, carbon dioxide, oxygen, pH, moisture desiccation, light and radiation, osmotic pressure. Mechanical stress are also important.
In this second part we will give more prevention and control of some microorganism and their spread or transmission.

For those who that don't read our first post we talked about Microorganism harmful effects, and their effect include
1. They contribute to food spoilage by decay.
2. They can also spoil materials like paper, leather, wood and textile through the metabolic nature.
3. They cause diseases due to release of their toxins. The diseases range from bacterial to fungal, rickettsial, viral, mycoplasmal protozoal.
4. They can equally corrode metals e.g Thiobacillus and iron bacteria.

Here are some ways that harmful microbes can be spread:

Through contaminated food
Through touch
In air
In water
Through contact with animals

Spread of Some Micro-organisms and their Prevention and Control
1. Malaria
Causative Organism: Plasmodium spp
Sources of infection: The bite of infected female anopheles mosquito.
Symptoms: Cold or chill, shivering occurs, high fever (i.e. rise in temperature), headache and pains in the joints, fatigue and weakness, loss of appetite, urine turns deep yellow, anaemia develops, fits and vomiting
Prevention and Control:
1. Check mosquito bite through
    (a) Clearing surrounding bush
    (b) Rob the body with insect repellant
    (c) Spray of insecticides
    (d) Physical killing of mosquitoes 
    (e) Pouring oil on water in cans and ponds or puddles 
    (f) The use of mosquito nets
    (g) Avoiding building near marshy environment
    (h) Destroying larva by biological control (use of fish & bacilli) 
2. The use of drugs like chloroquine phosphate, halfan, fancida. 
3. Isolation of patients
4. A good drainage frustrates breeding.

2. Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)

Causative Organism: Trypanosoma spp(T. rhodeseince and T. gambiense). 

Sources of infection: Infected tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans) bites patient to inject the parasite.
a. Rashes develop all over the body 
b. Invasion of the parasite into the blood causes fever, headache, sleeplessness
c. Enlargement of the lymphnodes
d. Emaciation coupled with anaemia.
e. Patient feels sleepy all the time 
Prevention and Control:
1. Attack on tsetse fly through clearing of surroundings.
2. Use of insecticides and isolation of animals susoected to have it. 
3. Inoculation against infection
4. Any incidence should be reported for treatment

3. Yellow Fever
Causative Organism: Yellow fever virus
Sources of infection: The bite of infceted female Aedes aegypti.
a. Sudden cold, coupled with fever.
b. Headaches and aches in the joints
c. Yellow eye balls, skins and jaundice
d. Cramps odour
e. Nausea and vomiting, vomit may be black.
f. Urine quantity diminishes 
g. Liver or kidney failure may occur 
h. Pumping ability of the heart is reduced      
Prevention and Control:

1. All mosquitoes are controlled just as in malaria disease
2. Suspected animals should be quarantined
3. Isolation of patient is very necessary 
4. Proper health education is essential

4. Tetanus (lock-jaw)

Causative Organism: Clostridium tetani
Sources of infection: Any deep wound especially from nail or knife or zinc cut
a. Stiffness of muscles of, especially the neck and jaws
b. Pains caused due to permanent contraction of the muscles of the face, neck and jaw.
Prevention and Control: 
1. Cleaning should be thoroughly done using antiseptics
2. Administration of tetanus toxoid is necessary. 
3. Doctors must make sure they treat deep wounds themselves 
4. Routine vaccination in infants must be followed 
5. Good sanitary condition

5. Leprosy  

Causative Organism: Mycobacterium leprae
Sources of infection: Enters through the nasal membrane. Incubation period is about 7 years
Symptoms: Sores and lesions develop gradually. It further appears on the nose and dinally on the limbs.
Prevention and Control:
1. General clealiness
2. Isolation of patient is necessary
3. Educating people on the disease is also necessary
4. Injection are administered
5. Given prompt treatment to cut or sores
6. Starting treatment quickly 

6. Typhus 
Causative Organism: Rickettsia
Sources of infection: Bite of parasite e.g lice, flea, tick or crushing or certain insect.
Symptoms: Itching pains after 5-15days, fever starts, there will be high fever
Prevention and Control: 
1. Avoiding too much of crowd
2. Don't share your cob, brushes and other thing like that with others
3. Get cloths disinfected
4.Living in slums must be discouraged 
5. Personal hygiene must be observed
6. Killing of mice and rats is compulsory

You can also list other microorganism that causes disease and their mode of spread or transmission and give us their possible control by commenting on this post. Thanks for using the part of your time reading this post.

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